MIME 类型

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) 是描述消息内容类型的标准,用来表示文档、文件或字节流的性质和格式。

MIME 消息能包含文本、图像、音频、视频以及其他应用程序专用的数据。

浏览器通常使用 MIME 类型(而不是文件扩展名)来确定如何处理URL,因此 We b服务器在响应头中添加正确的 MIME 类型非常重要。如果配置不正确,浏览器可能会无法解析文件内容,网站将无法正常工作,并且下载的文件也会被错误处理。

语法

MIME 类型通用结构:

type/subtype

MIME 的组成结构非常简单,由类型与子类型两个字符串中间用 / 分隔而组成,不允许有空格。type 表示可以被分多个子类的独立类别,subtype 表示细分后的每个类型。

MIME类型对大小写不敏感,但是传统写法都是小写。

两种主要的 MIME 类型在默认类型中扮演了重要的角色:

  • text/plain 表示文本文件的默认值。
  • application/octet-stream 表示所有其他情况的默认值。

常见的 MIME 类型

  • 超文本标记语言文本 .html、.htmltext/html

  • 普通文本 .txttext/plain

  • RTF 文本 .rtfapplication/rtf

  • GIF 图形 .gifimage/gif

  • JPEG 图形 .jpeg、.jpgimage/jpeg

  • au 声音文件 .auaudio/basic

  • MIDI 音乐文件 mid、.midiaudio/midi、audio/x-midi

  • RealAudio 音乐文件 .ra、.ramaudio/x-pn-realaudio

  • MPEG 文件 .mpg、.mpegvideo/mpeg

  • AVI 文件 .avivideo/x-msvideo

  • GZIP 文件 .gzapplication/x-gzip

  • TAR 文件 .tarapplication/x-tar

类型 描述 典型示例
text 表明文件是普通文本,理论上是人类可读 text/plain, text/html, text/css, text/javascript
image 表明是某种图像。不包括视频,但是动态图(比如动态gif)也使用image类型 image/gif, image/png, image/jpeg, image/bmp, image/webp, image/x-icon, image/vnd.microsoft.icon
audio 表明是某种音频文件 audio/midi, audio/mpeg, audio/webm, audio/ogg, audio/wav
video 表明是某种视频文件 video/webm, video/ogg
application 表明是某种二进制数据

application/octet-stream, application/pkcs12, application/vnd.mspowerpoint, application/xhtml+xml, application/xmlapplication/pdf

MIME 对照表

媒体类型 文件扩展名 说明
application/msword doc 微软 Office Word 格式(Microsoft Word 97 – 2004 document)
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document docx 微软 Office Word 文档格式
application/vnd.ms-excel xls 微软 Office Excel 格式(Microsoft Excel 97 – 2004 Workbook
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet xlsx 微软 Office Excel 文档格式
application/vnd.ms-powerpoint ppt 微软 Office PowerPoint 格式(Microsoft PowerPoint 97 – 2003 演示文稿)
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation pptx 微软 Office PowerPoint 文稿格式
application/x-gzip gz, gzip GZ 压缩文件格式
application/zip zip, 7zip ZIP 压缩文件格式
application/rar rar RAR 压缩文件格式
application/x-tar tar, tgz TAR 压缩文件格式
application/pdf pdf PDF 是 Portable Document Format 的简称,即便携式文档格式
application/rtf rtf RTF 是指 Rich Text Format,即通常所说的富文本格式
image/gif gif GIF 图像格式
image/jpeg jpg, jpeg JPG(JPEG) 图像格式
image/jp2 jpg2 JPG2 图像格式
image/png png PNG 图像格式
image/tiff tif, tiff TIF(TIFF) 图像格式
image/bmp bmp BMP 图像格式(位图格式)
image/svg+xml svg, svgz SVG 图像格式
image/webp webp WebP 图像格式
image/x-icon ico ico 图像格式,通常用于浏览器 Favicon 图标
application/kswps wps 金山 Office 文字排版文件格式
application/kset et 金山 Office 表格文件格式
application/ksdps dps 金山 Office 演示文稿格式
application/x-photoshop psd Photoshop 源文件格式
application/x-coreldraw cdr Coreldraw 源文件格式
application/x-shockwave-flash swf Adobe Flash 源文件格式
text/plain txt 普通文本格式
application/x-javascript js Javascript 文件类型
text/javascript js 表示 Javascript 脚本文件
text/css css 表示 CSS 样式表
text/html htm, html, shtml HTML 文件格式
application/xhtml+xml xht, xhtml XHTML 文件格式
text/xml xml XML 文件格式
text/x-vcard vcf VCF 文件格式
application/x-httpd-php php, php3, php4, phtml PHP 文件格式
application/java-archive jar Java 归档文件格式
application/vnd.android.package-archive apk Android 平台包文件格式
application/octet-stream exe Windows 系统可执行文件格式
application/x-x509-user-cert crt, pem PEM 文件格式
audio/mpeg mp3 mpeg 音频格式
audio/midi mid, midi mid 音频格式
audio/x-wav wav wav 音频格式
audio/x-mpegurl m3u m3u 音频格式
audio/x-m4a m4a m4a 音频格式
audio/ogg ogg ogg 音频格式
audio/x-realaudio ra Real Audio 音频格式
video/mp4 mp4 mp4 视频格式
video/mpeg mpg, mpe, mpeg mpeg 视频格式
video/quicktime qt, mov QuickTime 视频格式
video/x-m4v m4v m4v 视频格式
video/x-ms-wmv wmv wmv 视频格式(Windows 操作系统上的一种视频格式)
video/x-msvideo avi avi 视频格式
video/webm webm webm 视频格式
video/x-flv flv 一种基于 flash 技术的视频格式

按照内容类型排列的 MIME 类型列表

类型/子类型 扩展名
application/envoy evy
application/fractals fif
application/futuresplash spl
application/hta hta
application/internet-property-stream acx
application/mac-binhex40 hqx
application/msword doc
application/msword dot
application/octet-stream *
application/octet-stream bin
application/octet-stream class
application/octet-stream dms
application/octet-stream exe
application/octet-stream lha
application/octet-stream lzh
application/oda oda
application/olescript axs
application/pdf pdf
application/pics-rules prf
application/pkcs10 p10
application/pkix-crl crl
application/postscript ai
application/postscript eps
application/postscript ps
application/rtf rtf
application/set-payment-initiation setpay
application/set-registration-initiation setreg
application/vnd.ms-excel xla
application/vnd.ms-excel xlc
application/vnd.ms-excel xlm
application/vnd.ms-excel xls
application/vnd.ms-excel xlt
application/vnd.ms-excel xlw
application/vnd.ms-outlook msg
application/vnd.ms-pkicertstore sst
application/vnd.ms-pkiseccat cat
application/vnd.ms-pkistl stl
application/vnd.ms-powerpoint pot
application/vnd.ms-powerpoint pps
application/vnd.ms-powerpoint ppt
application/vnd.ms-project mpp
application/vnd.ms-works wcm
application/vnd.ms-works wdb
application/vnd.ms-works wks
application/vnd.ms-works wps
application/winhlp hlp
application/x-bcpio bcpio
application/x-cdf cdf
application/x-compress z
application/x-compressed tgz
application/x-cpio cpio
application/x-csh csh
application/x-director dcr
application/x-director dir
application/x-director dxr
application/x-dvi dvi
application/x-gtar gtar
application/x-gzip gz
application/x-hdf hdf
application/x-internet-signup ins
application/x-internet-signup isp
application/x-iphone iii
application/x-javascript js
application/x-latex latex
application/x-msaccess mdb
application/x-mscardfile crd
application/x-msclip clp
application/x-msdownload dll
application/x-msmediaview m13
application/x-msmediaview m14
application/x-msmediaview mvb
application/x-msmetafile wmf
application/x-msmoney mny
application/x-mspublisher pub
application/x-msschedule scd
application/x-msterminal trm
application/x-mswrite wri
application/x-netcdf cdf
application/x-netcdf nc
application/x-perfmon pma
application/x-perfmon pmc
application/x-perfmon pml
application/x-perfmon pmr
application/x-perfmon pmw
application/x-pkcs12 p12
application/x-pkcs12 pfx
application/x-pkcs7-certificates p7b
application/x-pkcs7-certificates spc
application/x-pkcs7-certreqresp p7r
application/x-pkcs7-mime p7c
application/x-pkcs7-mime p7m
application/x-pkcs7-signature p7s
application/x-sh sh
application/x-shar shar
application/x-shockwave-flash swf
application/x-stuffit sit
application/x-sv4cpio sv4cpio
application/x-sv4crc sv4crc
application/x-tar tar
application/x-tcl tcl
application/x-tex tex
application/x-texinfo texi
application/x-texinfo texinfo
application/x-troff roff
application/x-troff t
application/x-troff tr
application/x-troff-man man
application/x-troff-me me
application/x-troff-ms ms
application/x-ustar ustar
application/x-wais-source src
application/x-x509-ca-cert cer
application/x-x509-ca-cert crt
application/x-x509-ca-cert der
application/ynd.ms-pkipko pko
application/zip zip
audio/basic au
audio/basic snd
audio/mid mid
audio/mid rmi
audio/mpeg mp3
audio/x-aiff aif
audio/x-aiff aifc
audio/x-aiff aiff
audio/x-mpegurl m3u
audio/x-pn-realaudio ra
audio/x-pn-realaudio ram
audio/x-wav wav
image/bmp bmp
image/cis-cod cod
image/gif gif
image/ief ief
image/jpeg jpe
image/jpeg jpeg
image/jpeg jpg
image/pipeg jfif
image/svg+xml svg
image/tiff tif
image/tiff tiff
image/x-cmu-raster ras
image/x-cmx cmx
image/x-icon ico
image/x-portable-anymap pnm
image/x-portable-bitmap pbm
image/x-portable-graymap pgm
image/x-portable-pixmap ppm
image/x-rgb rgb
image/x-xbitmap xbm
image/x-xpixmap xpm
image/x-xwindowdump xwd
message/rfc822 mht
message/rfc822 mhtml
message/rfc822 nws
text/css css
text/h323 323
text/html htm
text/html html
text/html stm
text/iuls uls
text/plain bas
text/plain c
text/plain h
text/plain txt
text/richtext rtx
text/scriptlet sct
text/tab-separated-values tsv
text/webviewhtml htt
text/x-component htc
text/x-setext etx
text/x-vcard vcf
video/mpeg mp2
video/mpeg mpa
video/mpeg mpe
video/mpeg mpeg
video/mpeg mpg
video/mpeg mpv2
video/quicktime mov
video/quicktime qt
video/x-la-asf lsf
video/x-la-asf lsx
video/x-ms-asf asf
video/x-ms-asf asr
video/x-ms-asf asx
video/x-msvideo avi
video/x-sgi-movie movie
x-world/x-vrml flr
x-world/x-vrml vrml
x-world/x-vrml wrl
x-world/x-vrml wrz
x-world/x-vrml xaf
x-world/x-vrml xof

按照文件扩展名排列的 MIME 类型列表

扩展名 类型/子类型
  application/octet-stream
323 text/h323
acx application/internet-property-stream
ai application/postscript
aif audio/x-aiff
aifc audio/x-aiff
aiff audio/x-aiff
asf video/x-ms-asf
asr video/x-ms-asf
asx video/x-ms-asf
au audio/basic
avi video/x-msvideo
axs application/olescript
bas text/plain
bcpio application/x-bcpio
bin application/octet-stream
bmp image/bmp
c text/plain
cat application/vnd.ms-pkiseccat
cdf application/x-cdf
cer application/x-x509-ca-cert
class application/octet-stream
clp application/x-msclip
cmx image/x-cmx
cod image/cis-cod
cpio application/x-cpio
crd application/x-mscardfile
crl application/pkix-crl
crt application/x-x509-ca-cert
csh application/x-csh
css text/css
dcr application/x-director
der application/x-x509-ca-cert
dir application/x-director
dll application/x-msdownload
dms application/octet-stream
doc application/msword
dot application/msword
dvi application/x-dvi
dxr application/x-director
eps application/postscript
etx text/x-setext
evy application/envoy
exe application/octet-stream
fif application/fractals
flr x-world/x-vrml
gif image/gif
gtar application/x-gtar
gz application/x-gzip
h text/plain
hdf application/x-hdf
hlp application/winhlp
hqx application/mac-binhex40
hta application/hta
htc text/x-component
htm text/html
html text/html
htt text/webviewhtml
ico image/x-icon
ief image/ief
iii application/x-iphone
ins application/x-internet-signup
isp application/x-internet-signup
jfif image/pipeg
jpe image/jpeg
jpeg image/jpeg
jpg image/jpeg
js application/x-javascript
latex application/x-latex
lha application/octet-stream
lsf video/x-la-asf
lsx video/x-la-asf
lzh application/octet-stream
m13 application/x-msmediaview
m14 application/x-msmediaview
m3u audio/x-mpegurl
man application/x-troff-man
mdb application/x-msaccess
me application/x-troff-me
mht message/rfc822
mhtml message/rfc822
mid audio/mid
mny application/x-msmoney
mov video/quicktime
movie video/x-sgi-movie
mp2 video/mpeg
mp3 audio/mpeg
mpa video/mpeg
mpe video/mpeg
mpeg video/mpeg
mpg video/mpeg
mpp application/vnd.ms-project
mpv2 video/mpeg
ms application/x-troff-ms
mvb application/x-msmediaview
nws message/rfc822
oda application/oda
p10 application/pkcs10
p12 application/x-pkcs12
p7b application/x-pkcs7-certificates
p7c application/x-pkcs7-mime
p7m application/x-pkcs7-mime
p7r application/x-pkcs7-certreqresp
p7s application/x-pkcs7-signature
pbm image/x-portable-bitmap
pdf application/pdf
pfx application/x-pkcs12
pgm image/x-portable-graymap
pko application/ynd.ms-pkipko
pma application/x-perfmon
pmc application/x-perfmon
pml application/x-perfmon
pmr application/x-perfmon
pmw application/x-perfmon
pnm image/x-portable-anymap
pot, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
ppm image/x-portable-pixmap
pps application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
ppt application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
prf application/pics-rules
ps application/postscript
pub application/x-mspublisher
qt video/quicktime
ra audio/x-pn-realaudio
ram audio/x-pn-realaudio
ras image/x-cmu-raster
rgb image/x-rgb
rmi audio/mid
roff application/x-troff
rtf application/rtf
rtx text/richtext
scd application/x-msschedule
sct text/scriptlet
setpay application/set-payment-initiation
setreg application/set-registration-initiation
sh application/x-sh
shar application/x-shar
sit application/x-stuffit
snd audio/basic
spc application/x-pkcs7-certificates
spl application/futuresplash
src application/x-wais-source
sst application/vnd.ms-pkicertstore
stl application/vnd.ms-pkistl
stm text/html
svg image/svg+xml
sv4cpio application/x-sv4cpio
sv4crc application/x-sv4crc
swf application/x-shockwave-flash
t application/x-troff
tar application/x-tar
tcl application/x-tcl
tex application/x-tex
texi application/x-texinfo
texinfo application/x-texinfo
tgz application/x-compressed
tif image/tiff
tiff image/tiff
tr application/x-troff
trm application/x-msterminal
tsv text/tab-separated-values
txt text/plain
uls text/iuls
ustar application/x-ustar
vcf text/x-vcard
vrml x-world/x-vrml
wav audio/x-wav
wcm application/vnd.ms-works
wdb application/vnd.ms-works
wks application/vnd.ms-works
wmf application/x-msmetafile
wps application/vnd.ms-works
wri application/x-mswrite
wrl x-world/x-vrml
wrz x-world/x-vrml
xaf x-world/x-vrml
xbm image/x-xbitmap
xla application/vnd.ms-excel
xlc application/vnd.ms-excel
xlm application/vnd.ms-excel
xls application/vnd.ms-excel
xlt application/vnd.ms-excel
xlw application/vnd.ms-excel
xof x-world/x-vrml
xpm image/x-xpixmap
xwd image/x-xwindowdump
z application/x-compress
zip application/zip

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